geochemistry n : the chemistry of the earth's crust
The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earth's chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with the hydrosphere and the atmosphere.
The most important fields of geochemistry are:
- Isotope geochemistry: Determination of the relative and absolute concentrations of the elements and their isotopes in the earth and on earth's surface.
- Examination of the distribution and movements of elements in different parts of the earth (crust, mantle, hydrosphere etc.) and in minerals with the goal to determine the underlying system of distribution and movement.
- Cosmochemistry: Analysis of the distribution of elements and their isotopes in the cosmos .
- Organic geochemistry: A study of the role of processes and compounds that are derived from living or once-living organisms.
- Regional, environmental and exploration geochemistry: Applications to environmental, hydrological and mineral exploration studies.
The man considered by most to be the father of modern geochemistry was Victor Goldschmidt, and the ideas of the subject were formed by him in a series of publications from 1922 under the title ‘Geochemische Verteilungsgesetze der Elemente’.
The more common rock constituents are nearly all oxides; chlorine, sulfur and fluorine are the only important exceptions to this and their total amount in any rock is usually much less than 1%. F. W. Clarke has calculated that a little more than 47% of the earth's crust consists of oxygen. It occurs principally in combination as oxides, of which the chief are silica, alumina, iron oxides, lime, magnesia, potash and soda. The silica functions principally as an acid, forming silicates, and all the commonest minerals of igneous rocks are of this nature. From a computation based on 1672 analyses of all kinds of rocks Clarke arrived at the following as the average percentage composition: SiO2=59.71, Al2O3=15.41, Fe2O3=2.63, FeO=3.52, MgO=4.36, CaO=4.90, Na2O=3.55, K2O=2.80, H2O=1.52, TiO2=0.60, P2O5=0.22, total 99.22%). All the other constituents occur only in very small quantities, usually much less than 1%.
These oxides combine in a haphazard way. The potash and soda, for example, combine to produce feldspars. In some cases they may take other forms, such as nepheline, leucite and muscovite, but in the great majority of instances they are found as felspar. The phosphoric acid with lime forms apatite. The titanium dioxide with ferrous oxide gives rise to ilmenite. Part of the lime forms lime felspar. Magnesia and iron oxides with silica crystallize as olivine or enstatite, or with alumina and lime form the complex ferro-magnesian silicates of which the pyroxenes, amphiboles and biotites are the chief. Any excess of silica above what is required to neutralize the bases will separate out as quartz; excess of alumina crystallizes as corundum. These must be regarded only as general tendencies. It is possible by inspection of a rock analysis to say approximately what minerals the rock will contain, but there are numerous exceptions to any rule which can be laid down.
Hence we may say that except in acid or siliceous rocks containing 66% of silica and over, quartz will not be abundant. In basic rocks (containing 60% of silica or less) it is rare and accidental. If magnesia and iron be above the average while silica is low olivine may be expected; where silica is present in greater quantity over ferro-magnesian minerals, such as augite, hornblende, enstatite or biotite, occur rather than olivine. Unless potash is high and silica relatively low leucite will not be present, for leucite does not occur with free quartz. Nepheline, likewise, is usually found in rocks with much soda and comparatively little silica. With high alcalis soda-bearing pyroxenes and amphiboles may be present. The lower the percentage of silica and the alkalis the greater is the prevalence of t lime felspar as contracted with soda or potash felspar. Clarke has calculated the relative abundance of the principal rock-forming minerals with the following results: Apatite=0.6, titanium minerals=1.5, quartz=12.0, felspars=59.5, biotite=3.8, hornblende and pyroxene=16.8, total=94.2%. This, however, can only be a rough approximation. The other determining factor, namely the physical conditions attending consolidation, plays on the whole a smaller part, yet is by no means negligible, as a few instances will prove. There are certain minerals which are practically confined to deep-seated intrusive rocks, e.g. microcline, muscovite, diallage. Leucite is very rare in plutonic masses; many minerals have special peculiarities in microscopic character according to whether they crystallized in depth or near the surface, e.g. hypersthene, orthoclase, quartz. There are some curious instances of rocks having the same chemical composition but consisting of entirely different minerals, e.g. the hornblendite of Gran, in Norway, containing only hornblende, has the same composition as some of the camptonites of the same locality which contain felspar and hornblende of a different variety. In this connection we may repeat what has been said above about the corrosion of porphyritic minerals in igneous rocks. In rhyolites and trachytes early crystals of hornblende and biotite may be found in great numbers partially converted into augite and magnetite. The hornblende and biotite were stable under the pressures and other conditions which obtained below the surface, but unstable at higher levels. In the ground-mass of these rocks augite is almost universally present. But the plutonic representatives of the same magma, granite and syenite contain biotite and hornblende far more commonly than augite.
Acid, intermediate and basic igneous rocks
Those rocks which contain most silica and on crystallizing yield free quartz are erected into a group generally designated the "acid" rocks. Those again which contain least silica and most magnesia and iron, so that quartz is absent while olivine is usually abundant, form the "basic" group. The "intermediate" rocks include those which are characterized by the general absence of both quartz and olivine. An important subdivision of these contains a very high percentage of alkalis, especially soda, and consequently has minerals such as nepheline and leucite not common in other rocks. It is often separated from the others as the "alkali" or "soda" rocks, and there is a corresponding series of basic rocks. Lastly a small sub-group rich in olivine and without felspar has been called the "ultrabasic" rocks. They have very low percentages of silica but much iron and magnesia.
Except these last practically all rocks contain felspars or felspathoid minerals. In the acid rocks the common felspars are orthoclase, which perthite, microcline, oligoclase, all having much silica and alkalis. In the basic rocks labradorite, anorthite and bytownite prevail, being rich in lime and poor in silica, potash and soda. Augite is the commonest ferro-magnesian of the basic rocks, but biotite and hornblende are on the whole more frequent in the acid.
The rocks which contain leucite or nepheline, either partly or wholly replacing felspar are not included in this table. They are essentially of intermediate or of basic character. We might in consequence regard them as varieties of syenite, diorite, gabbro, etc., in which felspathoid minerals occur, and indeed there are many transitions between syenites of ordinary type and nepheline — or leucite — syenite, and between gabbro or dolerite and theralite or essexite. But as many minerals develop in these "alcali" rocks which are uncommon elsewhere, it is convenient in a purely formal classification like that which is outlined here to treat the whole assemblage as a distinct series.
This classification is based essentially on the mineralogical constitution of the igneous rocks. Any chemical distinctions between the different groups, though implied, are relegated to a subordinate position. It is admittedly artificial by it has grown up with the grown of the science and is still adopted as the basis on which more minute subdivisions are erected. The subdivisions are by no means of equal value. The syenites, for example, and the peridotites, are far less important than the granites, diorites and gabbros. Moreover, the effusive andesites do not always correspond to the plutonic diorites but partly also to the gabbros. As the different kinds of rock, regarded as aggregates of minerals, pass gradually into one another, transitional types are very common and are often so important as to receive special names. The quartz-syenites and nordmarkites may be interposed between granite and syenite, the tonalites and adamellites between granite and diorite, the monzoaites between syenite and diorite, norites and hyperites between diorite and gabbro, and so on..
- Holland, H.D., & Turekian, K.K. (2004). Treatise on Geochemistry. 9 Volumes. Elsevier
- Marshall, C., & Fairbridge, R. (2006). Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. ISBN 1-4020-4496-8. Berlin: Springer.
- Bernard Gunn: The Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks
- Gunter Faure: Principles of Isotope Geochemistry., ISBN 0-471-86412-9
- Cl.J. Allègre, G. Michard, R.N. Varney, Introduction to Geochemistry, ISBN 90-277-0497-X
- W.M. White: Geochemistry (Free Download)
- A.A. Levinson: Introduction to Exploration Geochemistry, ISBN: 0915834049
- Victor Moritz Goldschmidt: Father of Modern Geochemistry by Brian Mason (ISBN 0-941809-03-X)
- Essays on Geochemistry & the Biosphere, tr. Olga Barash, Santa Fe, NM, Synergetic Press, ISBN 0-907791-36-0, 2006
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